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B.C. Science Probe 8
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UNIT A - Cells and Systems

Chapter 1: Cells
Section 1.1: Characteristics of Living Things
Living and Non-living Things
A review of the seven characteristics of living things.

Living vs. Non-living
A quiz to determine what is living and what is not.

Section 1.2: Using a Microscope
The Microscope
Describes the parts of a microscope.

Using the Microscope
Detailed instructions on setting up and using a light microscope.

Section 1.3: Plant & Animal Cells

Cells Alive!
Interactive plant, animal, and bacteria cell site that described their organelles.

The Cell Page
Interactive site describing animal and plant cell organelles.

Section 1.4: Comparing Plant & Animal Cells
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
Cell illustrations with hyper-linked labels.

Cell Structure
Interactive animations of the different types of cells: animal and plant; prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and the functions of their organelles.

1.5: Advantages of a Microscope
Electron Microscope
The interactive site details the functions of the electron microscope.

Up Close and Personal With Salt
Tutorial lesson explores seeing salt using: the naked eye, a light microscope, and an electron microscope.

1.6: Parts of Cell seen with Electron Microscope
Electron Microscopy
Grayscale photographs of various cell parts from an electron microscope.

Electron Microscopic Atlas
A large variety of photographs of cells, organelles, and other tissues.

Images From the Microscope
A gallery of microscopic images from optical, digital, and scanning electron microscope sources.

1.7: Cells in their Environment
Biological Molecules, Organs and Systems
An interactive site explores the parts of a cell that interact with their environment.

Cell Biology
Interactive tutorials on cell biology.

1.8: Osmosis
Basic explanation of osmosis and solutions.

Osmosis Simulation
Simulation of osmotic flow in different environments.

1.9: Diffusion & Osmosis
Diffusion and Osmosis
Definitions and explanations of diffusion, osmosis, and membrane transport.

Transport by Simple Diffusion
Detailed description of simple diffusion.

1.10: How Does the Concentration of a Solution Affect Osmosis
Diffusion Animation
Animations of diffusion and osmosis with different solutes.

Osmosis Lab
Another version of a lab using potato pieces to show osmosis. T

1.11: Career Profile: Modellers
Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre
Website from McGill University based on Dr. Chang's work.

The Royal Society of Canada
Press release from The Royal Society of Canada outlining some of the work of Dr. Thomas Chang.

Chapter 2: Cells and Cell Systems
Section 2.1: Cells & Cell Systems
Basic Anatomy
Site explains some of the tissue and organ systems in the human body.

Human Anatomy Online
Interactive overview of various organ systems.

2.2: Unicellular Organisms
Unicellular Organisms
Guide to unicellular organisms, with a quiz.

Bacterial Cells
Fun exploration of the parts of a bacterial cell.

Life history and ecology of diatoms.

2.3: Need for Cell Division
A detailed look at the stages of cell division.

Why Do Cells Divide?
A look at some of the reasons for cell division.

2.4: Cell Specialization
Cell Specialization
A look at some specialized cells and the tissues they form.

Ask a Scientist
Question and answer about reasons for cell specialization.

2.5: Cell Wars
Cell Wars in Space
NASA site that looks at how our immune system defenders work in space.

Bacteria Cell
Close up view of a bacteria cell and its components.

2.6: Experimenting with Cells
The Genetic Engineering Debate
Website with the process to research and present a debate on genetic engineering, with links to many resources.

Genetically Modified Rice
A BBC story on the pro side of the benefits of new rice strain.

Biotechnology Online
General website with information and resources on both sides of the debate.

Chapter 3: Human Body Systems
Section 3.1: The Respiratory System
Respiratory System
Detailed diagrams and explanation of the parts of the human respiratory system.

Your Respiratory System
Fun site with information on different body systems, including the respiratory system.

3.2: The Circulatory System
The Heart and the Circulatory System
Detailed site with the history and science of the circulatory system in animals.

Your Heart and Circulatory System
Interactive site with a quiz on the parts of the circulatory system.

3.3: The Excretory System
Excretory System
The garbage collector - your kidney. Facts and links to information on the kidney and excretory system.

Your Urinary System
Fun site with information on different body systems, including the excretory system.

Section 3.4: The Digestive System
Your Digestive System and How it Works
Detailed site on the digestive system and what controls it.

The Real Deal on the Digestive System
Long explanation and diagrams on what happens to your food once you eat it.

Your Digestive System
Fun site with information on different body systems, including the digestion system.

Section 3.5: Organ Systems Working Together
Organ Systems
General information on the different body systems, and how they work together.

Endocrine System
Overview with graphics of the human endocrine system.

Nervous System
Overview with graphics of the human nervous system.

Section 3.6: Protecting the Body
Immune System
Overview of the human immune system, with graphics.

Human Skin
Site that explains what your skin does.

Section 3.7: Factors that Affect Reaction Time
Test Your Reaction Time
Interactive game to test your reaction time. Works with Netscape or Mozilla.

Hit the Dot
Another game to test your reaction time.

UNIT B - Fluids

Chapter 4: The Properties of Fluids
Helium Balloons
How helium balloons float on air.

Section 4.1: A Close-Up Look at Fluid Flow
Democritus and atoms.

Empedocles' views on the four elements.

Four Forces
A detailed explanation of the four forces and particle theory.

Kinetic Molecular Theory
Detailed site with explanations of many aspects of the theory.

States of Matter
States of matter explained with graphics and detailed charts.

Section 4.2: Fluid Flow around Objects
Bernoulli Principle
An explanation and animation of the Bernoulli principle.

Daniel Bernoulli
His history and discoveries.

Fluid Flow
Dozens of pictures of fluid flow in many different types of fluids.

Mach and High-Speed Flow
Description of the Mach number and the effect of high-speed flow.

Racing Aerodynamics
Explanations on aerodynamics and drag on race cars.

Section 4.3: Viscosity: A Property of Fluids

Blood in Forensic Science
The importance of blood in forensic science, from the Australian National Institute of Forensic Science.

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
Explains the analysis of bloodstain patterns in detail.

Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille
Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille and his study of the flow of human blood through tubes.

Meniscus-Climbing Insects
Amazing photos and videos of insects using the meniscus to propel themselves along the top of the water.

Section 4.4: Inquiry Investigation: Viscosity-From Thick to Thin
Fuel Mass Flow Rate
NASA fuel mass flow rate graphic and information showing how temperature affects fuel flow rate.

Oil Viscosity
The nature of oils and their uses, based on their viscosity.

Viscosity and Flow Rate
Interactive model of the flow rate of various liquids.

Section 4.5: Measuring Matter: Mass, Weight, and Volume
Mass, Weight, and Volume
Interactive experiments illustrate the principles of measuring matter.

Mass, Weight, and Weightlessness
Explanations of mass, weight, and weightlessness including graphics.

Your Weight on Other Worlds
Your weight on other planets and moons and why it's different than it is on Earth.

Section 4.6: Inquiry Investigation: Relating Mass and Volume
Density, mass, and volume, at Wikipedia, including the densities of many substances from gas to a neutron star.

Density Demonstration
Results of an experiment showing honey, water, vegetable oil, and rubbing alcohol layered in a cylinder.

Mass, Weight, and Volume
Experiments, definitions, and examples using mass, weight, and volume.

Triple-Beam Balance
Instructions on using a triple-beam balance.

Section 4.7: Density: Another Property of Fluids

Densities of Common Fluids
A list of densities of common fluids.

Densities of Gases
Information and demonstrations on the densities of gases.

Density of the Earth
Graphic and information on the density of the Earth's mantle.

Section 4.8: Inquiry Investigation: Some Liquids Just Do Not Mix
Oil and Water Don't Mix-Or Do They?
What happens when oil and water meet on a microscopic level.

Oil Spills and Density
How the density of oil and weathering affects the behaviour of oil spills in the ocean.

Oil Spills at Sea
Detailed explanations and graphics of how oil spills at sea behave over time.

Section 4.9: Comparing Densities

Athabasca Oil Sands
Satellite photos and information on extracting the oil from the sand in Athabasca , Alberta .

Icebergs in the Northern Hemisphere
Detailed facts and classification of icebergs in the northern hemisphere.

Properties of Minerals
Information and tables on mineral specific gravity, or density.

Rock Density Table
Table of the density of rocks

U.S. National Ice Center
Naval research on Arctic and Antarctic icebergs and glaciers.

Section 4.10: The Ups and Downs of Buoyancy
Archimedes and his discoveries and inventions.

Buoyancy in Action
An animated model showing the apparent reduction in weight of an object suspended in water.

Experiment with Buoyancy
Experiment similar to Try This: Buoyancy and Gravity Forces activity.

NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Lab
NASA's training lab for space shuttle and Canadarm astronauts.

Section 4.11: How and Why Do Things Float?
How Hot-Air Balloons Work
How Stuff Works site that explains the buoyancy principles in air.

Plimsoll Lines
The history and necessity of Plimsoll Lines, at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich , England .

Section 4.12: How Does Temperature Affect Viscosity and Density?
Black Smokers and Hot Vents
Environmental information related to the oceans and seafloor features, at the Vancouver Aquarium's AquaNews.

Canadian Volcanoes
Information and links about Canadian volcanoes, at the Ministry of Natural Resources Canada.

Does Cold Water Flow Faster than Hot Water?
Interactive demonstration of viscosity or fluid friction.

Hot-Air Balloons and Buoyancy
Hot-Air Ballooning images and information.

Hydrothermal Vents
Information and images on hydrothermal vents.

Why Does Salt Melt Ice?
Information and graphics explaining how salt melts ice.

Chapter 5: The Use of Fluids
How Car Brakes Work
Graphics and description of how car brakes work.

How Vacuum Cleaners Work
Graphics and information on how vacuum cleaners work.

Section 5.1:
Career Profile: Food Scientist
What Is Food Science?
In-depth discussion of what it means to be a food scientist and the education required.

Careers in Petroleum Engineering
Typical duties and required education, at Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.

Fluid Dynamics Solutions
Background on applications of fluid dynamics.

What Is Food Science All About?
The University of Guelph 's page on careers in food science.

Section 5.2: Fluids and the Confederation Bridge
Bering Strait Peace Bridge Project
Wikipedia article with map and links.

The Confederation Bridge
Official Web site of the Confederation Bridge , with descriptions of the how the bridge was constructed, tourist information, and live Web camera footage.

The Confederation Bridge on CBC
CBC archives coverage of the Confederation Bridge .

Extreme Engineering: The Bering Strait Bridge Project
Discovery Channel's feature examines the proposal, its structure, challenges, and benefits.

Petronas Twin Towers
Complete information about the Malaysian towers from height to the number of tonnes of steel they contain, with photographs.

Structural Engineering and the Confederation Bridge
Civil engineering Web site with facts about the Confederation Bridge .

Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster
Photos and video clips of the 1940 collapse of the Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge.

Section 5.3: Inquiry Investigation: How Fluids Handle Pressure
Blood Pressure
The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada's Web site on blood pressure.

Fluid Pressure Measurement
Graphics of the effect of pressure on fluids using photos of a pressure experiment.

Quantum Simulations Group
Models of materials at the microscopic level, including fluids under pressure.

Pascal's Principle
Interactive model illustrating Pascal's principle.

Section 5.4: Fluids under Pressure
The Evolution of Submarine Design
Summary of the change in design from 1578 to the nuclear submarines of today.

Flow through an Opening
Interactive demonstration illustrating the relationship of water pressure and the depth of the water from the surface.

High Altitude
Wikipedia information on the effects of high altitude on humans.

The High Pressure Physics Group
The research, careers, and biographies of a group of collaborative scientists.

The Marvelous Mirs
Information from Ocean Explorer on the Mir I and Mir II three-person deep-sea submersibles.

Under Pressure in a Deep-Sea Submarine
Video clips of deep-sea adventures and a clip of what happens to a Styrofoam cup below 3000 feet, at the Monterey Bay Aquarium.

Section 5.5: Pressure in Confined Fluids

Kinetic Molecular Theory Simulator
Colourful kinetic molecular theory simulation that lets you set your own parameters.

How Brakes Work
Easy-to-understand descriptions and diagrams of how brakes work in a hydraulic system.

How Pumps Work
Types of pumps and how they work, at the BBC's H2G2.

Hydraulic Press
Wikipedia article on the history and uses of hydraulic presses.

Hydraulic Systems
Simple descriptions and diagrams of how hydraulic machines work.

Jacques Cousteau
Wikipedia article on Jacques Cousteau with links to information on his part in inventing modern SCUBA.

Kinetic Molecular Theory Simulator
Colourful kinetic molecular theory simulation that lets you set your own parameters.

Tire Pressure Gauge
Diagrams of how a tire pressure gauge works, including photos of component parts and animation.

Section 5.6: Inquiry Investigation: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
Boyle's Law
Detailed explanation of Boyle's law.

Boyle's Law
NASA's site has lots of explanations and very colourful diagrams and models.

Boyle's Law Simulator
Sensitive interactive simulation of Boyle's law that graphs your results.

Gay-Lussac's Law
NASA's site includes an animated model illustrating Gay-Lussac's law.

History of Barometers
How pressure and volume are used to determine atmospheric pressure and predict the weather.

History of Thermometers
The invention of the thermometer and how surrounding temperature affects volume in a predictable and quantifiable way.

Section 5.7: Solve a Problem: A Closer Look at Fluid Power
Build Your Own Hydraulic Robotic Arm
Includes lesson plan for grades 8 to 12.

Hydraulic Lifts
Lists of different types of hydraulic lifts.

Section 5.8: Fluid Power at Work for Us
Hydraulics and Pneumatics at Disney
An article on hydraulic and pneumatic systems used on Walt Disney World attractions.

Jaws of Life
Information on how the Jaws of Life work.

Joseph Bramah
The life and inventions of Joseph Bramah.

Chapter 6: Fluids and Living Things
Intravenous Drip
Explanation of how intravenous drip systems work.

Section 6.1: From Bladders to Ballast: Altering Buoyancy
Cartesian Diver
Detailed information, photos, and animation for the Cartesian diver experiment.

Fish Swim Bladders
Detailed explanation of how fish swim bladders function from the Australian Museum Fish Site.

How Submarines Work
An animation and explanation of submarines submerging and rising, how they are powered, and their history.

MOVE-a Deep-Sea Research Vessel
Information on the MOVE, a remotely operated vehicle for the deepest regions of the sea.

Pied-billed Grebe
Video clips and links to detailed information about the Pied-billed Grebe, a waterfowl that can change its buoyancy.

Section 6.2: Explore an Issue: The Human Impact on Natural Fluid Systems
B.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands-Pest Management
Detailed information about native and non-native plants and insects.

Exotic Species in B.C.
Ministry of the Environment's Web site on the effects of exotic species in B.C.

The Green Crab on the West Coast
Information on the green crab and other exotic species on the West Coast, at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Invasive Species Information Center .

Invasive Alien Species Framework for B.C.
A downloadable pdf file on biodiversity issues from the Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection.

The Green Crab on the East Coast
Detailed background information on the green crab on the East Coast.

What Are Invasive Species?
Listing of invasive species of plants and invertebrates, at the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team.

Zebra Mussels
Detailed information on zebra mussels in the Great Lakes Region.

Section 6.3: Pressurized Fluid Systems: Hydraulics
Hydraulic Shovel
Video clip of a working hydraulic shovel.

Shovel Pistons
Video clip showing the shovel pistons of a hydraulic shovel in detail.

The Human Heart
Animated model of the pumping action of the human heart.

Section 6.4: Pressurized Fluid Systems: Pneumatics
How Lungs Work
Animated model of how the lungs inhale, exhale, and exchange gases.

Inhaling and Exhaling
Series of animated diagrams on how the lungs inhale and exhale.

Medical Ventilator
Wikipedia site explaining how a medical ventilator takes the place of the pneumatic system in our lungs.

Wikipedia article complete with diagrams and examples.

UNIT C - Water Systems on Earth

Chapter 7: The Water Cycle
Section 7.1
Environment Canada: Fresh Water-Properties of water
General website covering many aspects of water: water cycle, rivers and lakes, glaciers, etc.

Environment Canada: Fresh Water-Properties of water
General website covering many aspects of water: water cycle, rivers and lakes, glaciers, etc.

Water Cycle
On this wesite from the U.S. Geological Survey, the water cycle is described in great detail. You may want to direct students to this site for more in-depth study on topics such as evaporation, sublimation, condensation, and precipitation rates.

Section 7.4
Categories of Aquifers
Three main categories of aquifers in North America

This website on mechanical and chemical weathering is suitable for more advanced students for research purposes.

Weathering and Erosion
This site will help students understand weathering and erosion. It shows the natural processes that cause weathering and erosion and how to recognise weathering and erosion in action. Different climatic conditions can lead to different landforms. For advanced students.

Water: Lower Mainland
General information about water services in the Lower Mainland, a starting point for information about domestic water.

Water: Community Resources
Discusses water and its journey to our taps in the Vancouver area.

How Earth Works
This general website about the Earth and its structure is useful as background for students who have not studied geology and geography before.

Acid Rain
Causes and effects of acid rain.

Acid Rain ¾ Teacher's Resource
Background information about acid rain, including adverse effects and prevention methods.

This website is a guide on using water wisely.

Wastewater Treatment Plant
From this website, you can book tours of wastewater treatment plants in the Greater Vancouver Regional District.

Liquid Waste Management Planning
Information on local projects, and major investments in the Lower Mainland.

Water Quality Information
General information about water and sewer systems in Vancouver .

Pollutants Entering our Water Cycle
This website gives many examples of pollutants that can affect the water cycle. Advanced students can use this to research how pollutants and the water cycle are connected.

Chapter 8: Water Features
Section 8.1
Plate Tectonics: The Rocky History of an Idea.
Close examination of the globe often results in the observation that most of the continents seem to fit together like a puzzle. Learn about the person who first had this idea and the trials he faced. For advanced students.

Continental Shelf
General information about the continental shelf, including structure, slope, and rise.

Geological Formation of Glaciers
A detailed website on geologic features associated with glaciers, including lateral moraines, arêtes, horns, U-shaped valleys, fiords, and cirques. The causes of ice ages are briefly discussed.

Why Are there Ice Ages?
Although scientists cannot answer this question with certainty, they know that a number of factors interact to produce conditions favoring the formation of ice sheets. For advanced students.

Ocean Currents and Gyres
Introduction to ocean gyres and physical oceanography. The site also includes diagrams and satellite images of various gyres in the world.

Sea and Land Breeze
Sea and land breeze circulation: brief history and circulation patterns.

General information about the causes of tsunamis.

Tides: Why Do they Happen?
Background information about the different tidal ranges in North America .

Tidal Energy
Information on tidal energy and the potential of tide-generated electricity. For advanced students.

Tidal Energy in British Columbia
Sustainable energy using tides in British Columbia from the BC Sustainable Energy Association. For advanced students.

Chapter 9: Water and Our World
Section 9.1
International Year of the Ocean-Fact Sheets (Ocean Exploration).
Programs involved in ocean research and exploration.

Oil Rigs and Other Off-shore Structures
Oil rigs are huge structures, and their construction is often shown in TV programs on Discovery Channel. This website shows a wide variety of rig types.

Protecting the Marine Environment
The Environmental Response Branch was created to protect the marine environment from oil spills and other hazards. Shows the response to oil spills.

Environment Emergency Response
Provides an overview of oil spill cost recovery from a responsible party (spiller/polluter), pursuant to an emergency response by the BC Ministry of Environment.

Canadian Biodiversity Strategy
Canada 's response to the Convention on Biological Diversity. For advanced students.

Brine Shrimp Information
Background information on brine shrimp.

Brine Shrimp Activity
Activity for advanced students.

Farm Salmon Debate Spills into Canadian Restaurants
A CBC News report.

UNIT D - Optics

Chapter 10: Sources and Properties of Light
Section 10.1: Light Energy and Its Sources
NASA - Optics: Light, Color, and Their Uses. Educator's Guide
A detailed site for educators with optic activities for students. (80 page PDF)

Bioluminescence Questions and Answers
Ten common questions and answers on bioluminescence.

Canada's national facility for synchrotron light research
Synchrotron produces extremely bright light -- millions of times brighter than the sun. Synchrotron facts, including what is a synchrotron, and how it works.

Let there be light!
A general information site on light and lighting technology.

Section 10.2: Watching Light Travel
Shadow Zones
What happens during different types of lunar eclipses.   

More About Shadows: Umbra And Penumbra
Using the photon theory, this site investigates how the umbra and penumbra are formed.

Section 10.3: Getting in Light's Way
Teacher's Domain - Multimedia Resources for the Classroom and Professional Development
A detailed teacher site on energy, radiation and light with lesson plans and some video.

Basic Electromagnetic Wave Properties
The interactive tutorial explores the relationship between frequency, wavelength, and energy, and enables the visitor to adjust the intensity of the radiation and to set the wave into motion.

Waves and Colour
This tutorial shows properties of electromagnetic waves and their associated colours.

Section 10.4: The Visible Spectrum
Light and Colour
This site provides detailed explanations of light composition, waves, and colour.

The Visible Spectrum
The site explains where the visible spectrum fits within the range of electromagnetic radiation.

Section 10.5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
General Physics, Light/Colour, how X-Rays, CAT scans, Microwave ovens, TVs and LCD displays work.
The site explains how Einstein's work led to these devices, and how they work using different waves. Click on the Einstein picture.

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Questions and answers on all types of electromagnetic radiation.

Light and Radio Waves
This site has video and other information on the similarities between light and radio waves.   

Astronomical Images in Other Wavelengths
The site explores electromagnetic wavelengths given off by other suns and stars in the universe.

Infrared: More Than the Eye Can See
NASA video about infrared radiation. (Quicktime video, 5 min)

Section 10.6: Solar Panels
How Solar Cells Work
A lesson on solar cells explaining how the sun's energy is converted into electricity.

Spray-On Solar-Power Cells
Scientists have invented a plastic solar cell that can turn the sun's power into electrical energy, even on a cloudy day.

Question 17.
Windows Today
The site explains one company's development of their low-E window glass.

Low E - How does it work?
The site explains the terminology and facts about low-E glass.

Chapter 11: Mirrors and Lenses
Properties of Light
A general site with information on all aspects of light and reflection.

Section 11.1: Reflecting Light off a Plain Mirror
Reflecting Light
Experiments you can do with reflecting light.

Mystery of Reflection
This site provides explanations and diagrams of different types of reflection.

Reflection of Light from a Mirror
A detailed site explaining reflection and refraction experiments.

Critical Angles
When we talk about critical angles, we are talking about something called Total Internal Reflection (TIR). The site explains what TIR is.

Section 11.2: Reflecting Light off Surfaces
Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection
The behaviour of light is often studied by observing its reflection off of plane (flat) mirrors.

The Law of Reflection
This site has a detailed explanation and an animation showing the Law of Reflection.

Section 11.3: Describing Images
Pin Hole Camera
Try making a device called a pinhole camera as described in this activity.

Image Characteristics
This site provides an explanation of the "virtual image" formation in reflections.

Pinhole Cameras
This site demonstrates how to construct a pinhole camera.

Section 11.4: Viewing Images in a Plane Mirror
Image Formation in Plane Mirrors
The site explains using ray diagrams to examine image formation in mirrors.

What Portion of a Mirror is Required?
Ray diagrams can be used to determine what portion of a plane mirror must be used in order to view an image.

Section 11.5: Curved Mirrors
The Anatomy of a Curved Mirror
The site provides lessons on curved mirrors and their reflections.

Simulated Optics Experiments: Curved Mirror
This Java applet simulates optical experiments on your computer. You can study how a lens will focus a light source or make an image, and how a curved mirror works.

Zooming In On a Light Ray Bouncing Off a Curved Mirror
Scroll down to the animation: Zooming In On a Light Ray Bouncing Off a Curved Mirror. Notice that under high magnification this small section of the curved mirror looks like a straight line. This tells us how we can determine how a light ray is reflected from a curved mirror.

Convex Mirrors
The site describes how convex mirrors reflect light and produce images.

Reflection of Light and Image Formation
Concave mirrors are capable of producing real images (as well as virtual images).

Section 11.6: Using Curved Mirrors
Concave Mirror
This is a simulation of a ray tracing activity to study the nature of the image formed in a concave mirror as the distance of the object from the mirror and the size of the object change.

Using a Concave Mirror to Focus Radiation
A lesson plan to show how different forms of electromagnetic radiation can be focused using a concave mirror.

Hubble is a Reflecting Telescope
This Hubble website provides information on the Hubble Telescope. Hubble works on the same principle as the first reflecting telescope built in the 1600s by Isaac Newton. Light enters the telescope and strikes a concave primary mirror, which acts like a lens to focus the light. The bigger the mirror, the better the image.

Information on the two basic types of telescopes: refractors and reflectors.

Section 11.7: The Refraction of Light
Bending Light
An experiment, where you will first observe the angle of refraction as light passes through water. Next, you will see if a different medium, oil, results in a change in the angle of refraction.

Refraction of Light
Scroll down to the refraction simulator, Figure 3 to look at refraction in action.

Refraction of Light Applet
An applet that shows refraction using a variety of mediums including oil, water, etc.

The World Above the Water as Seen By a Fish
This java applet lets you see the view as seen by your fish, looking up at you.

Section 11.8: Refracting Light in Lenses
Refraction By Lenses
As a ray of light enters a lens, it is refracted; and as the same ray of light exits the lens, it is refracted again. The site is a tutorial on lens refraction.

Thick Lens Java Applet
This Java applet lets you experiment with the refraction caused by a thick lens.

The Refraction of Light
Read the site on the refraction of light. Click on the Activities link for a list of activities on refraction.

Section 11.9: Investigating Lenses
A list of applets that have you examine different types of lenses and the ray changes for each.

Diverging Lens
This applet shows the rays actions when you move an object in front of a diverging lens.

Chapter 12: Light and Vision
Section 12.1: The Human Eye and a Camera
Virtual Eye Dissection
This site has a dissection of a cow's eye. Not for the squeamish.

Lenses and Vision
An examination of the similarities and differences between a camera and the eye.

Section 12.2: Vision and Vision Problems
Human Vision
A detailed site explaining human vision and the parts of the eye.

Glaucoma Research Foundation
Glaucoma leads to blindness by damaging the optic nerve. Elevated pressure in the eye is a risk factor, but even people with normal pressure can lose vision to glaucoma.

Vision Correction: Taking a Look at What is New   
The U.S. Government site on common vision problems and the solutions available for vision correction.

Section 12.3: Mixing the Colours of Light
Mixing the Colours of Light
Small web page that lets you turn on and off the three primary colours to see what colours you get.

How We See Colour
A very detailed site on how we see colour. It gives an explanation of how the biology evolved, the parts of the brain that see colour, and different theories of colour perception.

Section 12.4: Colour Vision
Colour Test
A short web-based test to show how you can tire out your cones by looking at one strong colour for a long time.

Range Of Colours You Can See
The human visual system can detect the range of light spectrum from about 400 nanometers (violet) to about 700 nanometers (red). Our visual system perceives this range of light wave frequencies as a smoothly varying rainbow of colors.

Section 12.5: Research Scientist
Shift work and melatonin: Characterizing a new cancer-related occupational exposure
Dr. Marilyn Borugian's work, the linking of light late at night with increased risk of cancer, is explained.

Scientist of the Week
The site profiles Valerie L. Thomas, a scientist at NASA, and her invention of the illusion transmitter.

Section 12.6: A Telescope for Every Wave
The World's Largest Optical Telescopes
This site lists all large optical telescopes around the world, and gives information on each of them.

Research Telescopes
An A to Z listing of all research telescopes in the world.  

Gemini Telescopes
The Gemini Observatory consists of twin 8-meter optical/infrared telescopes located on two of the best sites on our planet for observing the universe.  Together these telescopes can access the entire sky.

Everything in Physics
Learn basic physics concepts of optics through these tutorials.

History of Telescopes
The history of telescopes from Galileo to NASA observatories.